Contemporary migration processes
Vietnamese to UK
(BBC, 28 October 2019)
Attracted by prospects of making money to send back to families in Vietnam, migrants are willing to take "huge risks" for "one opportunity to
send a family member abroad to earn money." UK preferred because "wide network" of
Vietnamese already there help with employment and accommodation. With no legal route for low-skilled workers, migration journeys to UK are "very circuitous and precarious."
"Premium" transit (averaging £35,000) is by plane, then a "safe house," e.g in Paris.
"Economy" (average £10,000): overland via Russia, China, E. Europe, France/Germany.
Either way, still enter UK "snuck in the back of a lorry or on a ferry."
UN estimates annual revenues of circa £340 million for smugglers.
borders were open" (Economist, Special Report, July, 2017)
"A world of free movement would be $78 trillion richer."
"Alienation 101" (Economist 1843, April, 2017 -may require subscription)
Businesses of communication and adaptation for migrants: At least based on recent
experiences of Chinese students at the University of Iowa, processes of cultural
exchange and interaction nowadays are rather different than what both critics and
proponents of student migration often assume.
lures Egypt's teens to Europe (NY Times, June, 2016)
Looking for a home (Economist, Special Report, May, 2016)
Migration is an intrinsically ambivalent business, both for the
governments that must manage it and for the migrants themselves.
Border fences (Economist, September, 2015)
"Weaving the world together" (Economist, November, 2011)
REFUGEE ROUTES FROM THE MIDEAST
AND AFRICA TO THE EUROPEAN UNION
see also: Europe's refugee conundra
Routes taken by unaccompanied minors, May-July 2017
(Refugee Youth Service Italy, Guardian, 13 July, 2017)
Central and eastern Mediterranean routes, 2015-16 (EERC)
Balkans route, from Greece through Hungary & Austria to Germany, used by 102 thousand refugees during Jan-Jun, 2015. During these six months, a total of 154 thousand applied for asylum in Germany (NY Times, 28-Aug-15, map from Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 2-Sep, p. 3):
Migrant Policy Institute: more research needed
In 2014, over three quarters came via the Central Mediterranean (mainly entering the EU through Italy. As of the first seven months of 2015, over half have come across the Eastern Mediterranean, "typically from Turkey to the Greek islands of Kos, Chios, Lesvos and Samos often in flimsy rubber dinghies or small wooden boats." (BBC, 3 Sept, 2015).Most of those of arriving in Greece in 2015 have then proceeded north towards Hungary en route to Germany.
Routes into Germany used by asylum-seekers from Mideast, North Africa. 116 thousand came during Jan-Aug, 2014, half by rail, paying smugglers $5-20 thous. each (Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 15-Oct-14, p. 7):
This page last updated 28-October-2018