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Long distance human relocation across international political borders has been a broad, diverse, and long term phenomenon, posing interesting challenges for public policy and institutions, personal lives and decision, and for scholarly understanding.


Much attention has been devoted to understanding and dealing with the effects of migration, most notably by trying limit it. My research has focused on the question of what causes mass migration in the first place. My approach has been to examine how, historically, the migration occurred: in particular the economic processes by which people physically relocated. I have mostly studied movement between Europe and North America during the globalizing decades prior to the First World War, when migrant traffic was the core business of the first major multinational long-distance travel industry.


This website is intended as a resource for my readers, for other researchers, and for anyone interested in how modern voluntary (uncoerced) mass migration has occurred, and particularly in the business opportunities, activities and risks associated with it.


Drew Keeling

(BA in Economics from Stanford, MBA from Wharton, PhD in History

from University of California, Berkeley), is the author of numerous

articles and shorter pieces concerning migration and transportation

across the North Atlantic, and a few comparative looks at other regions.

His full length book, The Business of Transatlantic Migration between Europe and the United States, 1900-1914 was published in 2012 (see  reviews and excerpts for further information).


(publisher of The Business of Transatlantic Migration) was founded in 1985, and is based in Zurich, Switzerland. Chronos is a leading European publisher of works in economic and social history. Chronos website here.


Hamburg-based service businesses

This website has been set up using the service of the Jimdo company.

Jimdo is based in Hamburg, one of the most significant embarkation ports for Europeans moving to North America a century and more ago. Second and third class passengers traveling between Hamburg and the United States during the years 1900 to 1914 made over one and a half million crossings westward, and about another half million eastward (Business of Transatlantic Migration, p. ix).