For web links go here


To go (back) to "Weitere Literatur",  go here


For family tree and genealogical research sources see the Immigrant Ancestors' page.


For research sources related to Titanic, go here or  here.


For South Atlantic, this list.


For transit migration (through Europe but to America, 19th and early 20th centuries), see lower on this page.


See also sources for the book, Business of Transatlantic Migration and libraries that have it.


And also these related articlescurrent items  and  Web links.





(additional more specific references above and on individual pages of this site)


Aldcroft, D.H., "The Mercantile Marine." in The Development of British Industry and Foreign Competion, 1875-1914,  by Derek H. Aldcroft, pp. 326-63. London: George Allen, 1968.


Barde, Robert Eric. Immigration at the Golden Gate: Passenger Ships, Exclusion and Angel Island. Westport: Praeger, 2008.


Bonsor, N. R. P. North Atlantic Seaway. Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1975-1980.


Cannato, Vincent J. American Passage: The History of Ellis Island. New York: Harper Collins, 2009.


Cohn, Raymond L. Mass Migration Under Sail: European Immigration to the Antebellum United States. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.


Coleman, Terry. The Liners: A History of the North Atlantic Crossing. London: Penguin, 1976.

Daniels, Roger. Coming to America: A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life. Princeton: Harper Collins, 1990.


Ferguson, Niall. The Pity of War: Explaining World War I. New York: Perseus, 1999.


Feys, Torsten. The Battle for the Migrants. Research in Maritime History 50 (2013).


Flayhart, William Henry III. The American Line (1871-1902). New York: Norton, 2000.


Gabaccia, Donna, R. Foreign Relations: American Immigration in Global Perspective. Princeton: Princeton University press, 2012.


Galizia, Paul Caruana. Mediterranean Labor Markets in the First Age of Globalization. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.


Gerber, David A and Alan M. Kraut. American Immigration and Ethnicity. A Reader. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.


Gjerde, Jon, editor. Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1998.


Grabbe, Hans-Jürgen. Vor der großen Flut: Die europäische Migration in die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika 1783-1820. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 2001. 


Graham, Otis L. Unguarded Gates: A History of America’s Immigration Crisis. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2004.


Grubb, Farley. “The End of European Immigrant Servitude in the United States: An Economic Analysis of Market Collapse, 1772-1835.” Journal of Economic History 54(4), pp. 794-824 (December 1994).


Gyory, Andrew. Closing the Gate: Race, Politics, and the Chinese Exclusion Act. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.


Handlin, Oscar. The Uprooted: The Epic Story of the Great Migrations that made the American People. Boston: Little, Brown, 1951.


Hansen, Marcus Lee. The Atlantic Migration 1607-1860: A History of the Continuing Settlement of the United States. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1940.


Harley, C. Knick. “Steers Afloat: The North Atlantic Meat Trade, Liner Predominance, and Freight Rates, 1870-1913.” Journal of Economic History 68(4), pp. 1028-1058 (December 2008).


Hatton, Timothy J., and Jeffrey G. Williamson. Global Migration and the World Economy: Two Centuries of Policy and Performance. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2005.


Headrick, Daniel R. The Tentacles of Progress: Technology Transfer in the Age of Imperialism, 1850-1914. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.


Hoerder, Dirk. Cultures in Contact: World Migrations in the Second Millennium. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.


Hutchins, John. American Maritime Industries and Public Policy, 1789-1914. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1941.


Isherwood, J. B. “Steamers of the Past” series in Sea Breezes, 1949-87.


Jerome, Harry. Migration and Business Cycles. National Bureau of Economic Research Publication No. 9. St. Albans: Messenger, 1926.


Jones, Maldwyn Allen. American Immigration. (2nd edition). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.


Just, Michael. Ost- und südosteuropäische Amerikawanderung 1881-1914.


Keeling, Drew, "Patterns and Processes of Migration: An Overview," in Settler Economies in World History, edited by Christopher Lloyd, Jacob Metzler and Richard Sutch. Leiden: Brill (2013), pp. 273-95.


Keeling, Drew, "August 1914 and the end of unrestricted mass migration," in The Economics of the Great War, edited by Stephen Broadberry and Mark Harrison. Vox Eu / CEPR (2018).


Keeling, Drew, The Business of Transatlantic Migration between Europe and the United States, 1900-1914. Zurich: Chronos, 2012.


Lafore, Laurence. The Long Fuse: An Interpretation of the Origins of World War I. (2nd edition). New York: Harper and Row, 1971.


Lee, Erika. At America's Gates: Chinese Immigration During the Exclusion Era, 1882-1945. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.


Lee, Everett S. “A Theory of Migration.” Demography 3(1), pp. 47-57 (1966).


Manning, Patrick.  Migration in World History (2nd ed.). London: Routledge, 2012.


Manz, Peter. Basel, August 1914: die Zweihunderttausend,” in Das Jahrhunder der Italiener in der Schweiz  (Zurich, 2003), pp. 59-71.


Martin, Philip, Manolo Abella and Christiane Kuptsch. Managing Labor Migration in the Twenty-first Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.


Marrus, Michael R. The Unwanted: European Refugees in the Twentieth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.


Maxtone-Graham, John. Crossing and Cruising: From the Golden Era of Ocean Liners to the Luxury Cruise Ships of Today. New York: Scribner’s, 1992.


Maxtone-Graham, John. The Only Way to Cross. New York: MacMillan, 1972.


McCart, Neil. Atlantic Liners of the Cunard Line: From 1884 to the present day. Wellingborough: Patrick Stephens, 1990.


McKeown, Adam. Melancholy Order: Asian Migration and the Globalization of Borders. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.


Milanovic, Branko, "There is a trade-off  between citizenshipo and migration," Financial Times, April 20. 2016.


Miller, Michael B. Europe and the Maritime World. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.


Morawska, Ewa T. “Labor Migrations of Poles in the Atlantic World Economy, 1880-1914.” In European Migrants: Global and Local Perspectives, edited by Dirk Hoerder and Leslie Page Moch, pp. 170-208. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1996.


Moss, Michael and John R. Hume. Shipbuilders to the World: 125 Years of Harland and Wolff, Belfast, 1861-1986. Belfast: Blackstaff Press, 1986.


Moya, Jose C. and Adam McKeown. World Migration in the Long Twentieth Century. Washington, D.C.: American Historical Association, 2011.


Murken, Erich. Die großen transatlantischen Linienreederei-Verbände, Pools und Interessengemeinschaften bis zum Ausbruch des Weltkrieges: Ihre Entstehung, Organisation, und Wirksamkeit. Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1922.


Nadell, Pamela S. “The Journey to America by Steam: The Jews of Eastern Europe in Transition.” American Jewish History 71 (December 1981), pp. 269-284.


O' Reilly, William and James Boyd, "Prospect Theory, Cascade Effects, and Migration: Analyzing Emigration 'Fevers' in the Historical Atlantic World," Journal of Interdisciplinary History (LI:I) (Summer 2020). pp. 39-63.


Piore, Michael J. Birds of passage: Migrant labor and industrial societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.


Puskás, Julianna. From Hungary to the United States (1880-1914). Budapest: Akadémia Kiadó, 1982. [From Hungary]


Ravenstein, E. G. “The Laws of Migration.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 52 (June 1889), pp. 241-301.


Reeves, Pamela. Ellis Island: Gateway to the American Dream. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1998.


Richards, Eric. Britannia’s Children: Emigration from England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland since 1600. London: Hambledon and London, 2004.


Thernstrom, Stephan, Ann Orlov and Oscar Handlin, editors, Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. Belknap, 1980.


Thistlethwaite, Frank. “Migration from Europe Overseas in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.” In A Century of European Migrations, 1830-1930, edited by Rudolph Vecoli and Suzanne Sinke, pp. 17-57. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991 (originally published in 1960).


Thomas, Brinley. Migration and Economic Growth: A study of Great Britain and the Atlantic Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956.


Wokeck, Marianne S. Trade in Strangers: The Beginnings of Mass Migration to North America. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999.


Wyman, Mark. Round-Trip to America: The Immigrants Return to Europe, 1880-1930. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.


Yans-McLaughlin, Virginia and Marjorie Lightman. Ellis Island and the Peopling of America: The Official Guide. New York: The New Press, 1997.


Zolberg, Aristide R. A Nation by Design: Immigration Policy in the Fashioning of America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006.





TRANSIT MIGRATION (through Europe enroute to North America)


Brinkmann, Tobias. “ ‘Travelling with Ballin’: The Impact of American Immigration Policies on Jewish Transmigration within Central Europe, 1880-1914.” International Review of Social History 53 (2008), pp. 459-484.


Brinkmann, Tobias. “Why Paul Nathan Attacked Albert Ballin: The Transatlantic Mass Migration and the Privatization of Prussia’s Eastern Border Inspection, 1886-1914.” Central European History 43 (2010), pp. 47-83.


Brinkmann, Tobias (ed.) Points of Passage: Jewish Transmigratns from Eastern Europe in Scandinavia, Germany and Britain, 1880-1914. New York: Berghahn, 2013.


Evans, Nicholas J. “Latter-day Saint Scandinavian Migration through Hull, England, 1852-1894” (with Fred E. Woods), BYU Studies, Volume 41, Number 4 (2002), pp. 75-102.


Evans, Nicholas J.  “Indirect Passage from Europe. European Transmigration via the UK, 1836-1914,” Journal for Maritime Research, Volume 3, No 1 (2001), pp. 70-84.


Just, Michael. Ost- und südosteuropäische Amerikawanderung 1881-1914. Transitprobleme in Deutschland und Aufnahme in den Vereinigten Staaten, Von Deutschland nach America, edited by Günter Moltmann, vol. 3. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1988.


Steidl, Annemarie, Josef Ehmer, Stan Nadel and Hermann Zeitlhofer (editors). European Mobility: Internal, International, and Transatlantic Moves in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries. Transkulturelle Perspektiven, edited by Sylvia Hahn, Christiane Harzig and Dirk Hoerder, vol. 8. Göttingen: Unipress, 2009.


Szajkowski, Zosa. “Sufferings of Jewish Emigrants to America in Transit Through Germany.” Jewish Social Studies 39, pp. 105-116 (Winter-Spring 1977).


Taylor, Philip. The Distant Magnet: European Migration to the U.S.A. New York: Harper and Row, 1971. [especially chapters 7 and 8]


Turnock, David. “Railway Development in Eastern Europe as a Context for Migration Study.” In Patterns of Migration, 1880-1914, edited by Aubrey Newman and Stephen W. Massil, pp. 293-311. London: Jewish Historical Society and Institute of Jewish Studies, 1996.


Weindling, Paul Julian. Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.


Wertheimer, Jack. Unwelcome Strangers: East European Jews in Imperial Germany. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.





Conover, Ted.  Coyotes: A Journey Across Borders with America's Illegal Migrants, 1987.

Kyle, David and Rey Koslowski (eds). Global Human Smuggling. Johns Hopkins U. Press, 2011.

Tinti, Peter and Tuesday Reitano. Migrant, Refugee, Smuggler, Saviour. London: Hurst, 2016.



                                This page last updated 31-January-2022