Sources for the book

See also the general list of sources for this site and the list of articles.


The book is based on research in shipping company archives, governmental records and documents, and contemporary accounts by migrant travellers, contemporary analysts and journalists, and shipping chronicler Erich Murken and cataloger Noel Bonsor (see here).


Other primary sources (very partial listing):


Broughton Brandenburg. Imported Americans. New York: Frederick  

  A. Stokes, 1904

Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970.

  (Bicentennial edition). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau, 1975.

Paul A.F. Neubaur. Der Norddeutsche Lloyd. 50 Jahre der  

  Entwicklung, 1857-1907. 3 vols. Leipzig, 1907.

Edward A. Steiner. On the Trail of the Immigrant. New York:  

  Revell, 1906.



In the secondary literature, important predecessors and background sources for the book include, but are not limited to:


Robin Bastin. “Cunard and the Liverpool Emigrant Traffic, 1860-1900.” Master’s thesis, University of Liverpool, 1971.


Lamar Cecil. Albert Ballin: Business and Politics in Imperial Germany, 1888-1918. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967.


John Milton Cooper, Jr. Pivotal Decades: The United States 1900-1920. New York: Norton, 1990.


John Higham. Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925. (2nd edition). New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1988 (1st edition was 1955).


Francis E. Hyde, Cunard and the North Atlantic, 1840-1973: A History of Shipping and Financial Management. London: Macmillan, 1975.


Günter Moltmann. “Steamship Transport of Emigrants from Europe to the United States, 1850-1914: Social, Commercial and Legislative Aspects.” In Maritime Aspects of Migration, edited by Klaus Friedland, pp. 309-320. Cologne: Böhlau, 1989.


Walter Nugent. Crossings: The Great Transatlantic Migrations, 1870-1914. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.


Birgit Ottmüller-Wetzel. Auswanderung über Hamburg: Die H.A.P.A.G. und die Auswanderung nach Nordamerika, 1870-1914. Ph.D. dissertation, Freie Universität Berlin, 1986.


Thomas Pitkin. The Keepers of the Gate: A history of Ellis Island. New York: New York University Press, 1975.


Joshua L. Rosenbloom. Looking for Work, Searching for Workers: American labor Markets during Industrialization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.


George R. Taylor. The Transportation Revolution, 1815-60. (2nd edition). (Economic History of the United States, vol. 4.) New York: Harper and Row, 1968.


Philip Taylor. The Distant Magnet: European Migration to the U.S.A. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.


Frank Thistlethwaite. “Migration from Europe Overseas in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.” In A Century of European Migrations, 1830-1930, edited by Rudolph Vecoli and Suzanne Sinke, pp. 17-57. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991.


Daniel J. Tichenor. The Politics of Immigration Control in America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.


Charles Tilly. “Transplanted Networks.” In Immigration Reconsidered: History, Sociology, and Politics, edited by Virginia Yans-McLaughlin, pp. 79-95. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.


Vivian Vale. The American Peril: Challenge to Britain on the North Atlantic, 1901-04. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984.