Updates and revision to article footnotes

Some footnotes in the articles “Networks” (2007) and “Capacity” (2008) reference the 2005 dissertation (Keeling, “Business”) which has since been superceded by the 2012 book (further details at the bottom below). For the benefit of readers of those two articles, the following substitutions update those articles’ existing footnote citations to the dissertation by replacing them with more direct references to underlying sources and analysis. (For post-publication updates and corrections to the 2012 book, see here).



Substitutions in the “Networks” article, listed by footnote (FN) number


FN 1, p. 113

Replace from “See also Drew Keeling"…through… "statistics…differ slightly

By “Those measures are based mainly on, and are closely approximated by, the second and third class passenger flows, westward and eastward, given in the “Reports of the Trans-Atlantic Passenger Movement,” Transatlantic Passenger Conferences, New York, 1899-1914”. See also Drew Keeling, “Repeat Migration between Europe and the United States, 1870-1914”  (2010), p. 178 (downloadable here): 13.5 mil "migrants west" minus 2.6 mil. "repeat migrants west" equals (about) 11 mil. European migrants (net) entering the US...during 1900-14. These measures differ slightly


FN 20, p. 120

Replace from They handled ticketsthroughBy essentially

By “They also handled tickets prepaid by relatives abroad. By essentially


FN 23, p. 121

Replace Keeling, Business,’ 187-195 and 238

By Robert DeC Ward, “The Immigration Problem,” Charities 12(6) (Feb. 1904), 140, Prescott F. Hall, Immigration and its effects upon the United States (1905), 25-27, Hvidt, “Emigration Agents,” 187-91.


FN 26, pp. 122 -23 (four references, a-d; a is on page 122, b-d on page 123)

a. Replace “in Keeling, “Business,” 368-369

    By based on by-class fare data, including that in Appendix 6 below, and the reports ofthe Transatlantic Passenger Conferences (see footnote 25 above)

b. Replace See Keeling, “Business,” 368-369”  

    By See, for instance, the twenty-five year Cunard fare series in Keeling, “Transportation Revolution,” 64-65.

c. Replace (Keeling, “Business,” 286)

    By The analysis leading to this result is similar to that done for Table A1 of Keeling, “Transportation Revolution” (56-57), but more precise because it determines passenger flows for each year, 1900-14, and for first and second class separately. A further difference is that the results here are for flows in both directions, not just inbound to the United States, as were the numbers presented in “Transportation Revolution.” “Migrants,” though defined somewhat more broadly than the BI’s “immigrants” can be accurately estimated from the BI reports. Samples from the U.S. passenger manifests (held by the U.S. National Archives and available digitally in the Ellis Island database) strongly indicate that nearly all steerage passengers were migrants (broadly defined as above), and very few migrants travelled in first class. Hence, all migrants in excess of the total number of steerage passengers journeyed in the second class where their presence accounted for most, but not all, second class passenger totals over the 1900-14 period as a whole.

d. Replace (These results are shown more fully in Keeling, “Business,” 257-263 and 336-337).

By (Annual reports of Anchor Line, Univ. of Glasgow; CGT, CGT Archive, Le Havre; Cunard, Univ. of Liverpool;  HAPAG, Staatsarchiv Hamburg; Holland America, Gemeentearchief Rotterdam; NDL, Deutsche Schiffahrtsmuseum, Bremerhaven).


FN 31, p. 124

Delete “(see Keeling, “Business,” 15 and 299)

Insert after the end of the first sentence in that same footnote:

For 1900-14, the vessel size data (gross tons) comes from Bonsor, North Atlantic Seaway, averaged over the period and weighted by numbers of voyages of each vessel (given in “Reports of the Trans-Atlantic Passenger Movement,” Transatlantic Passenger Conferences, see also footnotes 1 and 25). The crossing time (transatlantic) for 1900-14 is similarly based on the speed, in knots, of each vessel (Bonsor) times the distance per route (Annual Report of the Commissioner of Navigation of the United States (ARCN), 312-317, averaged over all vessel-routes (given in the “Reports of the Trans-Atlantic Passenger Movement”). These measures are for westbound crossings to New York only and do not take into account delays due to weather, etc. Including time for ports of call stops enroute adds about a day to the computed average transit; the actual crossing time, considering weather etc, (estimated from Ellis Island Archive, STLI-23741, "Steamship Arrivals, 1906," and from samples of U.S. passenger manifests), was less than a day more than the average time based on the rated speed of the vessels in knots. Including ports other than New York boosts the overall average transit time by about a further day. The average crossing time eastbound averaged less than a day faster.


FN 40, pp. 126-27

Replace “(See Keeling, “Business,” 329 and 369)

By  The “Barbarossa class” vessels of North German Lloyd (NDL) line (see “The History of the Norddeutscher Lloyd” (1903, Steamship Historical Society, University of Baltimore), 32-33), narrowly defined (see J.B. Isherwood, “Steamers of the Past,” Sea Breezes, XLVI (1974), 643), consisted of four ships, each built in Germany, placed in service in 1897, having about ten and half thousand gross tons and a steerage passenger capacity of between 1500 and 2000, and used on both North Atlantic and Far East routes (Bonsor, 559-560). According to Edwin Drechsel, Norddeutscher Lloyd, Bremen, 1857-1970 (1995), 180, the Barbarossa class liners “with passengers in the ‘tweendeck [steerage] could take 8,000 tons of cargo. [With the ‘tweendeck] used as cargo space, a total of 10,000 tones could be carried.”


FN 49, p. 128

Replace Keeling, “Business,” 288

By This result is based on deck plans (footnote 40) and voyage tallies by vessel ("Reports of the Trans-Atlantic Passenger Movement," see footote 25). “Over one third,” however, applies to routes from northern Europe on which enclosed room accommodations were most prevalent for migrants. Taking into account southern routes, the overall fraction of migrants travelling in enclosed rooms was closer to a quarter. See also the sources in the next footnote (50) below.


FN 61, p. 132

Replace See Keeling, “Business,” 155 and 347.

By  “See Outlook, May 1903, 235, Wall Street Jrl, 9 July 9, 1904, p. 2.


FN 64, p. 134

Replace These effects are measured and described more fully in Keeling, “Business,” 155-165and 359-364.

By  Data and observations evidencing these various effects can be found, for example, in the U.S. Bureau of Statistics, “Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance, Immigrants Arrived in the United States,” 1903-05, and in the BI annual reports, 1904-08, Table V, and 1904, 124-25.


FN 77, pp. 137-38


Keeling, “Business,” particularly 9-11, 41-64, 234-236, 302-306, 309-313, 322-335 and 343.

 By  “Harry Jerome, Migration and Business Cycles (1926), 105-22, Wyman, 72-73, Aristide R. Zolbery, "The Archeaology of 'Remote Control,'” in Andreas Fahrmeir, et. al., ed, Migration Control in the North Atlantic, 195-222. See also Günter Moltmann, Das Risiko der Seereise: Auswanswerundungsbedingungen im Europe-Amerika-Verkehr um die Mitte des 19 Jahrhunderts," Durchhardt and Schlenke (eds.) Festschrift für Eberhardt Kessel zum 75. Geburstag (1982), 182-211."


FN 126, p. 153

Replace See Keeling, “Economics”….199-202.

BySee Footnote 53 above, and also Dillingham Report, XXXIX, 29-66, and Robert F. Zeidel, Immigrants, Progressives and Exclusion Politics (2003), 51-69.


FN 134, p. 156

Replace See Keeling, "Business,," 3-4.

By For further background see i.a. F. W. Grubb, “The Disappearance of Organized Markets for European Immigrant Servants in the United State,” Social Science History 18(1), 1-30 (1994), Hansen, Atlantic Migration, 119-22, 128-29, 218-19, 283-306. Gould, "Patterns and Causes," 611-21



Substitutions in the “Capacity” article, listed by footnote (FN) number


FN 2, p. 226

Replace (see Keeling, 2005a, p. 346) and "capacity management"

By . Based on passengers by class (in the Voyage Database (footnote7 below) ), compared to immigration volumes by port  (Table I, etc.) in the U.S. Bureau of Immigration annual reports, 1900-1914, on passenger list samples, and on the Bureau’s analysis in the National Archives, Record Group 85, Entry 23, Vol 3, “Records of the Central Office,” showing immigrants by class of travel; the approach is similar to that used in Keeling, 1999b, pp. 56-57. Capacity management


FN 7, p. 226

Replace "see Keeling (2005a), pp. 329-330 for further particulars and sources)

By . The vessel data came mainly from the shipping reference books and articles of Bonsor (1975-80) and Isherwood (1949-87); other sources include Kludas (1986) and ARCN (1900-02).


FN 17, p. 229

Replace See Keeling (2005sa), pp. 345-46.)

By For sources and derivation, see footnote 2 above.


FN 24, p. 230

Replace(see Keeling (2005a), pp. 78-83).)

By “.  According to the New York Commissioners of Emigration annual report for 1849, p. 289, most passengers arriving from Europe that year travelled on U.S.-owned ships. Beginning in the 1850s, but especially during and in the years just after the hiatus of the U.S. Civil War (a severe disruption to the normal peacetime activities of U.S. merchant vessels), European shipping lines captured nearly all of the passenger trade from American lines, and retained that dominance for decades thereafter. A slower American start in the shift from sail to steam, higher wage costs for crews in the U.S. than in Europe, and a U.S. policy favoring shipbuilding over ship ownership in the U.S. juxtaposed against strong ongoing subsidies and support from European central government and local ports, severely handicapped efforts to re-establish U.S.-owned transatlantic passenger shipping on a large scale in subsequent decades. See, for example, John Hutchins (1941), American Maritime Industries and Public Policy, 1789-1914 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press), pp. 282-93, 362-68, 521-41, and Andrew Gibson and Arthur Donovan (2000), The Abandoned Ocean: A History of United States Maritime Policy (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press).”



Further details

concerning these footnote updates:


The book, The Business of Transatlantic Migration between Europe and the United States, 1900-1914 (published at the end of 2012) is a reworked, rewritten and updated replacement of the 2005 PhD dissertation bearing the slightly different title, “The Business of Transatlantic Migration between Europe and the USA, 1900-1914.”

However, some details in the 2005 dissertation (particularly in the appendices to the dissertation) were not presented in the book, but were instead used for, or incorporated into, separate scholarly articles (that were then later cited in the 2012 book).

     All my articles cited in the book were published, or in final form with a publisher, before the book was published. Thus, the book cites the articles, but those articles do not cite the book.   

     Nonetheless, two of the articles “Networks,” and “Capacity,” do cite the 2005 dissertation (that was the predecessor of the 2012 book). These articles were atypically long, and mainly referenced the dissertation as a shorthand substantiation of points that were technical background to arguments and analysis in the articles, Now that the dissertation has been effectively replaced by the published book, the list of footnote updates above is intended to provide interested specialists with more direct reference to the sources and calculations underlying those portions of these various footnotes.


Drew Keeling,

May, 2014

(Updated: October 2018, January 2022)



                         This page last updated 31-January-2022