Transit migration in Europe

“After the introduction of iron-hulled propeller-driven steamships in the 1850s and ‘60s, the most influential technical improvement to transatlantic travel was the completion of railroad networks throughout Europe’s interior. By the late 1880s, nearly all of the source regions [for American immigration] were well connected to Europe’s major ports.”

    Business of Transatlantic Migration, p. 176


“Between 1900 and 1914, about half of European emigrants to the United States moved indirectly by way of at least one third country before continuing  [across the Atlantic].”

   “Improvement of Travel Conditions” p. 108 (listed here)


Mass transit migration had enormous economic repercussions.”

   “Points of Passage” conference (book listed here (bottom), available here)


“Governments in early twentieth-century European ‘transit’ countries, notably Britain and Germany, feared ‘undesirable’ migrants lingering rather than passing through, or bringing dangerous diseases with them, as apparently occurred with the cholera epidemic that shut down Hamburg’s migrant traffic for six months in 1892-1893.”

   “Costs, risks and networks,” p. 154 (listed here).


For sources on transit migration:

scroll down the page here


See also U.S. arrival ports, (Ellis Island and others),

"New" vs "Old" immigration.