“BI” United States Bureau of Immigration
capacity utilization = Paying Passengers / On-board passenger berths
“closed berths” = rooms aboard ships sleeping 2-8 passengers
debarred = would-be immigrants preventing from entering the United States during and sent back (if for medical reasons, then (after 1893) at transport company expense)
fiscal year = During 1900 to 1914, the U.S. government fiscal year ran from July 1 to June 30. Many annual U.S. government immigration statistics were measured over July through June fiscal years. Nonetheless, in this book, annual data shown are for calendar years unless fiscal years are specified.
NDLV = Nordatlantischer Dampfer-Linien-Verband (North AtlanticSteamship Line Association), founded by HAPAG, NDL,Red Star and Holland-America in 1892. See Figure 3-1 above andMurken, p. 24.
“open berths” = “dormitory-style” bunk rooms aboard ships, sleeping up to several hundred passengers
passenger types =
non-migrants = native-born U.S. citizens, tourists, and business travellers
migrants = All other passengers
“Repeat” =A migrant passenger who had already crossed the Atlanticat least once before.
“First time” = All other migrant passengers
A cubic measure of ship space. A “gross ton” = 100 cubic feet of space. A “net ton” is the same, but applies only to space actually used for revenue-generating purposes, i.e., passenger accommodations or cargo holds. Net tons on a transatlantic passenger steamship were typically about 70% of gross tons (according to data in the Lloyd Register of British and Foreign Shipping (London, 1899)). Because ratios (of net to gross tons, of volumes of passenger sections to volumes of freight holds, and of migrant compartments to total passenger areas) did not vary substantially over time, “gross tons per passenger capacity” offers a rough gauge of trends in space available for migrants.
Travel Classes (on board North Atlantic ships, 1890-1914):
I = First Class
II = Second Class
III = Third Class or Steerage
Note: First class (or “first cabin”) and second class (or “second cabin”) were collectively called the “cabin”. Most writers and cataloguers have defined “third class” and “steerage” as meaning, identically, all accommodations priced lower than second class, whether in closed berths (“new steerage”) or open berths (“old steerage”) or both.
Voyage Database = Excel spreadsheet of voyages and passengers, to and from New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, 1899-1914, described in Appendix 1, “Quantitative Sources, Methods and Concentrations.”